Over 20 Vector research papers accepted at CVPR 2023

July 12, 2023

2023 Research Research 2023

4 papers co-authored by Vector Faculty Members and Faculty Affiliates were accepted at this year’s conference

By Natasha Ali 

Vector Faculty Members and Faculty Affiliates were well represented at IEEE / CVF Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (CVPR) 2023. This year’s conference was held in Vancouver from June 18 to 22. 

The hybrid event featured research talks, poster presentations, and workshops from AI and computer science experts. 24 papers co-authored by Vector Faculty Members and Faculty Affiliates were accepted at this year’s conference.

Among the accepted papers, five were co-authored by Vector Faculty Member and co-founder Raquel Urtasun, whose research focuses on developing neural sensor simulators for self-driving vehicles. Vector Faculty Member Sanja Fidler, also co-authored five papers about 3D environment construction for virtual reality and robotic simulations.

Researchers modify NeRF training models to improve 3D representations of 2D images

For “RobustNeRF: Ignoring Distractors with Robust Losses,” co-authored by Vector Faculty Member and Google Research Brain Team leader David Fleet, researchers created a neural network model that trains neural radiance fields (NeRFs) to generate accurate representations of 3D scenes from 2D images.

While current NeRF methods work when all training images are of the same ‘static’ scene, they produce inaccurate results when the scene varies from one image to another (e.g., due to a moving person, a transient object that appears in some images but not others, or a transient shadow).

Using robustNeRF, Fleet and his co-authors modified existing algorithms and trained neural network models to ignore transient objects in training images. “The result,” Fleet says, “is a simple change to existing methods, which is shown to perform extremely well compared to modern NeRF training methods.”

How can computers recognize objects in images the same way humans do?

Sparsifiner: Learning Sparse Instance-Dependent Attention for Efficient Vision Transformers,” co-authored by Vector Institute Research Director Graham Taylor,  presents a new, less compute-heavy technique that helps computers recognize object in images the same way that humans do. The paper builds on previous studies of vision transformers (ViTs), image recognition models that rely on deep learning algorithms to detect individual objects in images and classify them for further analysis. 

Traditionally, ViTs use a technique called “multi-head self-attention” to compare all parts of an image with each other. However, this process is very compute-intensive. 

To mitigate this issue, Taylor and his co-authors developed Sparsifiner, a more efficient version of ViTs. This vision transformer predicts which parts of an image are most likely to have meaningful relations to each other, focuses its attention on the relations between those parts, and ignores the rest. 

“The key improvement in Sparsifiner compared to prior work,” Taylor says, “is that it predicts a unique sparse attention pattern for each input image.” 

Sparsifiner reduces the amount of computing power without a significant loss in accuracy, enabling more advanced image recognition technologies in areas where resources are limited.

Accepted research papers by Vector Faculty Members

Below are abstracts and plain language summaries of the accepted papers co-authored by Vector Faculty Members and Faculty Affiliates.

Align your Latents: High-Resolution Video Synthesis with Latent Diffusion Models
Andreas Blattmann, Robin Rombach, Huan Ling, Tim Dockhorn, Seung Wook Kim, Sanja Fidler, Karsten Kreis

Latent Diffusion Models (LDMs) enable high-quality image synthesis while avoiding excessive compute demands by training a diffusion model in a compressed lower-dimensional latent space. Here, we apply the LDM paradigm to high-resolution video generation, a particularly resource-intensive task. We first pre-train an LDM on images only; then, we turn the image generator into a video generator by introducing a temporal dimension to the latent space diffusion model and fine-tuning on encoded image sequences, i.e., videos. Similarly, we temporally align diffusion model upsamplers, turning them into temporally consistent video super resolution models. We focus on two relevant real-world applications: Simulation of in-the-wild driving data and creative content creation with text-to-video modeling. In particular, we validate our Video LDM on real driving videos of resolution 512 x 1024, achieving state-of-the-art performance. Furthermore, our approach can easily leverage off-the-shelf pre-trained image LDMs, as we only need to train a temporal alignment model in that case. Doing so, we turn the publicly available, state-of-the-art text-to-image LDM Stable Diffusion into an efficient and expressive text-to-video model with resolution up to 1280 x 2048. We show that the temporal layers trained in this way generalize to different fine-tuned text-to-image LDMs. Utilizing this property, we show the first results for personalized text-to-video generation, opening exciting directions for future content creation.

Architectural Backdoors in Neural Networks
Mikel Bober-Irizar, Ilia Shumailov, Yiren Zhao, Robert Mullins, Nicolas Papernot

Machine Learning community is currently facing a threat from backdoored neural networks, which are intentionally modified by attackers in the supply chain. These backdoored models have hidden behaviors that get triggered by a specific secret “trigger” in the input, while functioning normally otherwise. Most backdoor attacks modify the trained weights of the models during training, either directly or by manipulating the training data. In this paper we show that the architecture of neural networks itself can be modified to hide backdoors, making them resistant to removal even through full retraining. We construct a proof of concept Model Architecture Backdoor (MAB) and provide a method for constructing such backdoors that survive retraining on new datasets. We identify the requirements for successful architectural backdoors and demonstrates their effectiveness on various benchmarks. Our research introduces a new class of backdoor attacks that operate at the architecture level, going beyond previous methods that rely on modifying weights.

Cooperation or Competition: Avoiding Player Domination for Multi-Target Robustness via Adaptive Budgets
Yimu Wang, Dinghuai Zhang, Yihan Wu, Heng Huang, Hongyang Zhang

Despite incredible advances, deep learning has been shown to be susceptible to adversarial attacks. Numerous approaches were proposed to train robust networks both empirically and certifiably. However, most of them defend against only a single type of attack, while recent work steps forward at defending against multiple attacks. In this paper, to understand multi-target robustness, we view this problem as a bargaining game in which different players (adversaries) negotiate to reach an agreement on a joint direction of parameter updating. We identify a phenomenon named \emph{player domination} in the bargaining game, and show that with this phenomenon, some of the existing max-based approaches such as MAX and MSD do not converge. Based on our theoretical results, we design a novel framework that adjusts the budgets of different adversaries to avoid player domination. Experiments on two benchmarks show that employing the proposed framework to the existing approaches significantly advances multi-target robustness.

DINN360: Deformable Invertible Neural Network for Latitude-Aware 360° Image Rescaling
Yichen Guo, Mai Xu, Lai Jiang, Leonid Sigal, Yunjin Chen

With the rapid development of virtual reality, 360-degree images have gained increasing popularity. Their wide field of view necessitates high resolution to ensure image quality. This, however, makes it harder to acquire, store and even process such imagery. To alleviate this issue, we propose the first attempt at 360-degree image rescaling. The rescaling process consists of producing a valid but low-resolution variant of the original image and a method for upscaling this low-resolution counterpart to the original high-resolution when needed. The key is defining, or learning, the process of both downsampling and upsampling. Given an empirical observation that the amount of information varies with latitude in 360-degree imagery, we propose a novel deformable invertible neural network for this task. Our deformable invertible neural network learns to downscale high-resolution images to low-resolution, and project the high-frequency information to the latent space by adaptively handling different latitude regions. The invertible nature of the designed neural network facilitates upscaling of the low-resolution image. Extensive experiments over four public datasets show that our method performs considerably better than other state-of-the-art methods for factors of 2x, 4x and 8x 360-degree image rescaling.

Dynamically Instance-Guided Adaptation: A Backward-Free Approach for Test-Time Domain Adaptive Semantic Segmentation
Wei Wang · Zhun Zhong · Weijie Wang · Xi Chen · Charles Ling · Boyu Wang · Nicu Sebe

In this paper, we study the application of Test-time domain adaptation in semantic segmentation (TTDA-Seg) where both efficiency and effectiveness are crucial. Existing methods either have low efficiency (e.g., backward optimization) or ignore semantic adaptation (e.g., distribution alignment). Besides, they would suffer from the accumulated errors caused by unstable optimization and abnormal distributions. To solve these problems, we propose a novel backward-free approach for TTDA-Seg, called Dynamically Instance-Guided Adaptation (DIGA). Our principle is utilizing each instance to dynamically guide its own adaptation in a non-parametric way, which avoids the error accumulation issue and expensive optimizing cost. Specifically, DIGA is composed of a distribution adaptation module (DAM) and a semantic adaptation module (SAM), enabling us to jointly adapt the model in two indispensable aspects. DAM mixes the instance and source BN statistics to *Corresponding author encourage the model to capture robust representation. SAM combines the historical prototypes with instance-level prototypes to adjust semantic predictions, which can be associated with the parametric classifier to mutually benefit the final results. Extensive experiments evaluated on five target domains demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Our DIGA establishes new state-of-the-art performance in TTDA-Seg.

Exemplar-FreeSOLO: Enhancing Unsupervised Instance Segmentation With Exemplars
Taoseef Ishtiak, Qing En, Yuhong Guo

Instance segmentation seeks to identify and segment each object from images, which often relies on a large number of dense annotations for model training. To alleviate this burden, unsupervised instance segmentation methods have been developed to train class-agnostic instance segmentation models without any annotation. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised instance segmentation approach, Exemplar-FreeSOLO, to enhance unsupervised instance segmentation by exploiting a limited number of unannotated and unsegmented exemplars. The proposed framework offers a new perspective on directly perceiving top-down information without annotations. Specifically, Exemplar-FreeSOLO introduces a novel exemplar knowledge abstraction module to acquire beneficial topdown guidance knowledge for instances using unsupervised exemplar object extraction. Moreover, a new exemplar embedding contrastive module is designed to enhance the discriminative capability of the segmentation model by exploiting the contrastive exemplar-based guidance knowledge in the embedding space. To evaluate the proposed ExemplarFreeSOLO, we conduct comprehensive experiments and perform in-depth analyses on three image instance segmentation datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective and outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

Geometric Visual Similarity Learning in 3D Medical Image Self-Supervised Pre-training
Yuting He, Guanyu Yang, Rongjun Ge, Yang Chen, Jean-Louis Coatrieux, Boyu Wang, Shuo Li

Learning inter-image similarity is crucial for 3D medical images self-supervised pre-training, due to their sharing of numerous same semantic regions. However, the lack of the semantic prior in metrics and the semantic-independent variation in 3D medical images make it challenging to get a reliable measurement for the inter-image similarity, hindering the learning of consistent representation for same semantics. We investigate the challenging problem of this task, i.e., learning a consistent representation between images for a clustering effect of same semantic features. We propose a novel visual similarity learning paradigm, Geometric Visual Similarity Learning, which embeds the prior of topological invariance into the measurement of the inter-image similarity for consistent representation of semantic regions. To drive this paradigm, we further construct a novel geometric matching head, the Z-matching head, to collaboratively learn the global and local similarity of semantic regions, guiding the efficient representation learning for different scale-level inter-image semantic features. Our experiments demonstrate that the pre-training with our learning of inter-image similarity yields more powerful inner-scene, inter-scene, and global-local transferring ability on four challenging 3D medical image tasks.

Implicit Occupancy Flow Fields for Perception and Prediction in Self-Driving
Ben Agro, Quinlan Sykora, Sergio Casas, Raquel Urtasun

A self-driving vehicle (SDV) must be able to perceive its surroundings and predict the future behavior of other traffic participants. Existing works either perform object detection followed by trajectory forecasting of the detected objects, or predict dense occupancy and flow grids for the whole scene. The former poses a safety concern as the number of detections needs to be kept low for efficiency reasons, sacrificing object recall. The latter is computationally expensive due to the high-dimensionality of the output grid, and suffers from the limited receptive field inherent to fully convolutional networks. Furthermore, both approaches employ many computational resources predicting areas or objects that might never be queried by the motion planner. This motivates our unified approach to perception and future prediction that implicitly represents occupancy and flow over time with a single neural network. Our method avoids unnecessary computation, as it can be directly queried by the motion planner at continuous spatiotemporal locations. Moreover, we design an architecture that overcomes the limited receptive field of previous explicit occupancy prediction methods by adding an efficient yet effective global attention mechanism. Through extensive experiments in both urban and highway settings, we demonstrate that our implicit model outperforms the current state-of-the-art.

Learning Compact Representations for LiDAR Completion and Generation
Yuwen Xiong, Wei-Chiu Ma, Jingkang Wang, Raquel Urtasun

LiDAR provides accurate geometric measurements of the 3D world. Unfortunately, dense LiDARs are very expensive and the point clouds captured by low-beam LiDAR are often sparse. To address these issues, we present UltraLiDAR, a data-driven framework for scene-level LiDAR completion, LiDAR generation, and LiDAR manipulation. The crux of UltraLiDAR is a compact, discrete representation that encodes the point cloud’s geometric structure, is robust to noise, and is easy to manipulate. We show that by aligning the representation of a sparse point cloud to that of a dense point cloud, we can densify the sparse point clouds as if they were captured by a real high-density LiDAR, drastically reducing the cost. Furthermore, by learning a prior over the discrete codebook, we can generate diverse, realistic LiDAR point clouds for self-driving. We evaluate the effectiveness of UltraLiDAR on sparse-to-dense LiDAR completion and LiDAR generation. Experiments show that densifying realworld point clouds with our approach can significantly improve the performance of downstream perception systems. Compared to prior art on LiDAR generation, our approach generates much more realistic point clouds. According to A/B test, over 98.5% of the time human participants prefer our results over those of previous methods.

Make-a-Story: Visual Memory Conditioned Consistent Story Generation
Tanzila Rahman, Hsin-Ying Lee, Jian Ren, Sergey Tulyakov, Shweta Mahajan, Leonid Sigal

In this work we focus on the problem of story generation, the goal of which is to generate a sequence of consistent illustrative images given a sequence of sentences — a textual story. This ability has many interesting applications including visualization of educational materials, assisting artists with web-comic creation and so on. A good visual story generation does not only depend on the ability to generate high quality visuals, but also consistent rendering of scenes and actors within a story, e.g. preserving their appearances. Further, realistic stories are referential in nature and require the ability to resolve ambiguity and references (or co-references) through reasoning. Neither of these two challenges have been addressed by prior works. In this paper, for the first time (to our knowledge), we study coreference resolution in story generation. We do so by introducing Story-LDM, a deep generative approach with autoregressive structure. Within this model, we propose a novel memory attention mechanism which takes into account the already generated semantics of the previous frames to ensure temporal consistency and smooth story progression. To validate coreference resolution, and character and background consistency, we extend existing datasets and evaluation metrics to include more complex scenarios. Our proposed method not only outperforms prior state-of-the-art in generating frames with high visual quality, but also models appropriate correspondences between the characters and the background.

MixSim: A Hierarchical Framework for Mixed Reality Traffic Simulation
Simon Suo, Kelvin Wong, Justin Xu, James Tu, Alexander Cui, Sergio Casas, Raquel Urtasun

The prevailing way to test a self-driving vehicle (SDV) in simulation involves non-reactive open-loop replay of real world scenarios. However, in order to safely deploy SDVs to the real world, we need to evaluate them in closed-loop. Towards this goal, we propose to leverage the wealth of interesting scenarios captured in the real world and make them reactive and controllable to enable closed-loop SDV evaluation in what-if situations. In particular, we present MIXSIM, a hierarchical framework for mixed reality traffic simulation. MIXSIM explicitly models agent goals as routes along the road network and learns a reactive routeconditional policy. By inferring each agent’s route from the original scenario, MIXSIM can reactively re-simulate the scenario and enable testing different autonomy systems under the same conditions. Furthermore, by varying each agent’s route, we can expand the scope of testing to what-if situations with realistic variations in agent behaviors or even safety critical interactions. Our experiments show that MIXSIM can serve as a realistic, reactive, and controllable digital twin of real world scenarios.

Neural Fields meet Explicit Geometric Representations for Inverse Rendering of Urban Scenes
Zian Wang, Tianchang Shen, Jun Gao, Shengyu Huang, Jacob Munkberg, Jon Hasselgren, Zan Gojcic, Wenzheng Chen, Sanja Fidler

Reconstruction and intrinsic decomposition of scenes from captured imagery would enable many applications such as relighting and virtual object insertion. Recent NeRF based methods achieve impressive fidelity of 3D reconstruction, but bake the lighting and shadows into the radiance field, while mesh-based methods that facilitate intrinsic decomposition through differentiable rendering have not yet scaled to the complexity and scale of outdoor scenes. We present a novel inverse rendering framework for large urban scenes capable of jointly reconstructing the scene geometry, spatially-varying materials, and HDR lighting from a set of posed RGB images with optional depth. Specifically, we use a neural field to account for the primary rays, and use an explicit mesh (reconstructed from the underlying neural field) for modeling secondary rays that produce higher-order lighting effects such as cast shadows. By faithfully disentangling complex geometry and materials from lighting effects, our method enables photorealistic relighting with specular and shadow effects on several outdoor datasets. Moreover, it supports physics-based scene manipulations such as virtual object insertion with ray-traced shadow casting.

Neural Kernel Surface Reconstruction
Jiahui Huang, Zan Gojcic, Matan Atzmon, Or Litany, Sanja Fidler, Francis Williams

We present a novel method for reconstructing a 3D implicit surface from a large-scale, sparse, and noisy point cloud. Our approach builds upon the recently introduced Neural Kernel Fields (NKF) representation. It enjoys similar generalization capabilities to NKF, while simultaneously addressing its main limitations: (a) We can scale to large scenes through compactly supported kernel functions, which enable the use of memory-efficient sparse linear solvers. (b) We are robust to noise, through a gradient fitting solve. (c) We minimize training requirements, enabling us to learn from any dataset of dense oriented points, and even mix training data consisting of objects and scenes at different scales. Our method is capable of reconstructing millions of points in a few seconds, and handling very large scenes in an out-of-core fashion. We achieve state-of-the-art results on reconstruction benchmarks consisting of single objects, indoor scenes, and outdoor scenes.

NeuralField-LDM: Scene Generation with Hierarchical Latent Diffusion Models
Seung Wook Kim, Bradley Brown, Kangxue Yin, Karsten Kreis, Katja Schwarz, Daiqing Li, Robin Rombach, Antonio Torralba, Sanja Fidler

Automatically generating high-quality real world 3D scenes is of enormous interest for applications such as virtual reality and robotics simulation. Towards this goal, we introduce NeuralField-LDM, a generative model capable of synthesizing complex 3D environments. We leverage Latent Diffusion Models that have been successfully utilized for efficient high-quality 2D content creation. We first train a scene auto-encoder to express a set of image and pose pairs as a neural field, represented as density and feature voxel grids that can be projected to produce novel views of the scene. To further compress this representation, we train a latent-autoencoder that maps the voxel grids to a set of latent representations. A hierarchical diffusion model is then fit to the latents to complete the scene generation pipeline. We achieve a substantial improvement over existing state-of-the-art scene generation models. Additionally, we show how NeuralField-LDM can be used for a variety of 3D content creation applications, including conditional scene generation, scene inpainting and scene style manipulation.

Omnimatte3D: Associating Objects and their Effects in Unconstrained Monocular Video
Erika Lu, Forrester Cole, Tali Dekel, Andrew Zisserman, William T. Freeman, Michael Rubinstein

In this work we propose a method for decomposing a video into a background and a set of foreground layers, where the background captures stationary elements while the foreground layers capture moving objects along with their associated effects (e.g. shadows and reflections). Our approach is designed for unconstrained monocular videos, with arbitrary camera and object motion unlike previous methods that work on video with limited range of camera motion. Our predicted layered representation proves useful in many applications such as object removal, camera stabilization, synthetic defocus and many others. The technical novelty lies in a series of proposed learning objectives that ensure appropriate decomposition into the layered representation.

Preserving Linear Separability in Continual Learning by Backward Feature Projection
Qiao Gu, Dongsub Shim, Florian Shkurti

Catastrophic forgetting has been a major challenge in continual learning, where the model needs to learn new tasks with limited or no access to data from previously seen tasks. To tackle this challenge, methods based on knowledge distillation in feature space have been proposed and shown to reduce forgetting. However, most feature distillation methods directly constrain the new features to match the old ones, overlooking the need for plasticity. To achieve a better stability-plasticity trade-off, we propose Backward Feature Projection (BFP), a method for continual learning that allows the new features to change up to a learnable linear transformation of the old features. BFP preserves the linear separability of the old classes while allowing the emergence of new feature directions to accommodate new classes. BFP can be integrated with existing experience replay methods and boost performance by a significant margin. We also demonstrate that BFP helps learn a better representation space, in which linear separability is well preserved during continual learning and linear probing achieves high classification accuracy.

RobustNeRF: Ignoring Distractors with Robust Losses
Sara Sabour, Suhani Vora, Daniel Duckworth, Ivan Krasin, David J. Fleet, Andrea Tagliasacchi

Neural radiance fields (NeRF) excel at synthesizing new views given multi-view, calibrated images of a static scene. When scenes include distractors, which are not persistent during image capture (moving objects, lighting variations, shadows), artifacts appear as view-dependent effects or ’floaters’. To cope with distractors, we advocate a form of robust estimation for NeRF training, modeling distractors in training data as outliers of an optimization problem. Our method successfully removes outliers from a scene and improves upon our baselines, on synthetic and real-world scenes. Our technique is simple to incorporate in modern NeRF frameworks, with few hyper-parameters. It does not assume a priori knowledge of the types of distractors, and is instead focused on the optimization problem rather than pre-processing or modeling transient objects.

SparsePose: Sparse-View Camera Pose Regression and Refinement
Samarth Sinha, Jason Y. Zhang, Andrea Tagliasacchi, Igor Gilitschenski, David B. Lindell

Camera pose estimation is a key step in standard 3D reconstruction pipelines that operate on a dense set of images of a single object or scene. However, methods for pose estimation often fail when only a few images are available because they rely on the ability to robustly identify and match visual features between image pairs. While these methods can work robustly with dense camera views, capturing a large set of images can be time-consuming or impractical. We propose SparsePose for recovering accurate camera poses given a sparse set of wide-baseline images (fewer than 10). The method learns to regress initial camera poses and then iteratively refine them after training on a large-scale dataset of objects (Co3D: Common Objects in 3D). SparsePose significantly outperforms conventional and learning-based baselines in recovering accurate camera rotations and translations. We also demonstrate our pipeline for high-fidelity 3D reconstruction using only 5-9 images of an object.

Sparsifiner: Learning Sparse Instance-Dependent Attention for Efficient Vision Transformers
Cong Wei, Brendan Duke, Ruowei Jiang, Parham Aarabi, Graham W. Taylor, Florian Shkurti

Vision Transformers (ViT) have shown their competitive advantages performance-wise compared to convolutional neural networks (CNNs) though they often come with high computational costs. To this end, previous methods explore different attention patterns by limiting a fixed number of spatially nearby tokens to accelerate the ViT’s multi-head self-attention (MHSA) operations. However, such structured attention patterns limit the token-to-token connections to their spatial relevance, which disregards learned semantic connections from a full attention mask. In this work, we propose a novel approach to learn instance-dependent attention patterns, by devising a lightweight connectivity predictor module to estimate the connectivity score of each pair of tokens. Intuitively, two tokens have high connectivity scores if the features are considered relevant either spatially or semantically. As each token only attends to a small number of other tokens, the binarized connectivity masks are often very sparse by nature and therefore provide the opportunity to accelerate the network via sparse computations. Equipped with the learned unstructured attention pattern, sparse attention ViT (Sparsifiner) produces a superior Pareto-optimal trade-off between FLOPs and top-1 accuracy on ImageNet compared to token sparsity. Our method reduces 48% to 69% FLOPs of MHSA while the accuracy drop is within 0.4%. We also show that combining attention and token sparsity reduces ViT FLOPs by over 60%.

SPIn-NeRF: Multiview Segmentation and Perceptual Inpainting with Neural Radiance Fields 
Ashkan Mirzaei, Tristan Aumentado-Armstrong, Konstantinos G. Derpanis, Jonathan Kelly, Marcus A. Brubaker, Igor Gilitschenski, Alex Levinshtein

Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) have emerged as a popular approach for novel view synthesis. While NeRFs are quickly being adapted for a wider set of applications, intuitively editing NeRF scenes is still an open challenge. One important editing task is the removal of unwanted objects from a 3D scene, such that the replaced region is visually plausible and consistent with its context. We refer to this task as 3D inpainting. In 3D, solutions must be both consistent across multiple views and geometrically valid. In this paper, we propose a novel 3D inpainting method that addresses these challenges. Given a small set of posed images and sparse annotations in a single input image, our framework first rapidly obtains a 3D segmentation mask for a target object. Using the mask, a perceptual optimizationbased approach is then introduced that leverages learned 2D image inpainters, distilling their information into 3D space, while ensuring view consistency. We also address the lack of a diverse benchmark for evaluating 3D scene inpainting methods by introducing a dataset comprised of challenging real-world scenes. In particular, our dataset contains views of the same scene with and without a target object, enabling more principled benchmarking of the 3D inpainting task. We first demonstrate the superiority of our approach on multiview segmentation, comparing to NeRFbased methods and 2D segmentation approaches. We then evaluate on the task of 3D inpainting, establishing state-ofthe-art performance against other NeRF manipulation algorithms, as well as a strong 2D image inpainter baseline.

StepFormer: Self-Supervised Step Discovery and Localization in Instructional Videos
Nikita Dvornik, Isma Hadji, Ran Zhang, Konstantinos G. Derpanis, Animesh Garg, Richard P. Wildes, Allan D. Jepson

Instructional videos are an important resource to learn procedural tasks from human demonstrations. However, the instruction steps in such videos are typically short and sparse, with most of the video being irrelevant to the procedure. This motivates the need to temporally localize the instruction steps in such videos, i.e. the task called key-step localization. Traditional methods for key-step localization require video-level human annotations and thus do not scale to large datasets. In this work, we tackle the problem with no human supervision and introduce StepFormer, a self-supervised model that discovers and localizes instruction steps in a video. StepFormer is a transformer decoder that attends to the video with learnable queries, and produces a sequence of slots capturing the key-steps in the video. We train our system on a large dataset of instructional videos, using their automatically-generated subtitles as the only source of supervision. In particular, we supervise our system with a sequence of text narrations using an order-aware loss function that filters out irrelevant phrases. We show that our model outperforms all previous unsupervised and weakly-supervised approaches on step detection and localization by a large margin on three challenging benchmarks. Moreover, our model demonstrates an emergent property to solve zero-shot multi-step localization and outperforms all relevant baselines at this task.

Towards Unsupervised Object Detection from LiDAR Point Clouds
Lunjun Zhang, Anqi Joyce Yang, Yuwen Xiong, Sergio Casas Bin Yang, Mengye Ren, Raquel Urtasun

In this paper, we study the problem of unsupervised object detection from 3D point clouds in self-driving scenes. We present a simple yet effective method that exploits (i) point clustering in near-range areas where the point clouds are dense, (ii) temporal consistency to filter out noisy unsupervised detections, (iii) translation equivariance of CNNs to extend the auto-labels to long range, and (iv) self supervision for improving on its own. Our approach, OYSTER (Object Discovery via Spatio-Temporal Refinement), does not impose constraints on data collection (such as repeated traversals of the same location), is able to detect objects in a zero-shot manner without supervised finetuning (even in sparse, distant regions), and continues to self-improve given more rounds of iterative self-training. To better measure model performance in self-driving scenarios, we propose a new planning-centric perception metric based on distance-to-collision. We demonstrate that our unsupervised object detector significantly outperforms unsupervised baselines on PandaSet and Argoverse 2 Sensor dataset, showing promise that self-supervision combined with object priors can enable object discovery in the wild. 

Trace and Pace: Controllable Pedestrian Animation via Guided Trajectory Diffusion
Davis Rempe, Zhengyi Luo, Xue Bin Peng, Ye Yuan, Kris Kitani, Karsten Kreis, Sanja Fidler, Or Litany

We introduce a method for generating realistic pedestrian trajectories and full-body animations that can be controlled to meet user-defined goals. We draw on recent advances in guided diffusion modeling to achieve test-time controllability of trajectories, which is normally only associated with rule-based systems. Our guided diffusion model allows users to constrain trajectories through target waypoints, speed, and specified social groups while accounting for the surrounding environment context. This trajectory diffusion model is integrated with a novel physics-based humanoid controller to form a closed-loop, full-body pedestrian animation system capable of placing large crowds in a simulated environment with varying terrains. We further propose utilizing the value function learned during RL training of the animation controller to guide diffusion to produce trajectories better suited for particular scenarios such as collision avoidance and traversing uneven terrain.

UniSim: A Neural Closed-Loop Sensor Simulator
Ze Yang, Yun Chen, Jingkang Wang, Siva Manivasagam, Wei-Chiu Ma, Anqi Joyce Yang, Raquel Urtasun

Rigorously testing autonomy systems is essential for making safe self-driving vehicles (SDV) a reality. It requires one to generate safety critical scenarios beyond what can be collected safely in the world, as many scenarios happen rarely on our roads. To accurately evaluate performance, we need to test the SDV on these scenarios in closed-loop, where the SDV and other actors interact with each other at each timestep. Previously recorded driving logs provide a rich resource to build these new scenarios from, but for closed-loop evaluation, we need to modify the sensor data based on the new scene configuration and the SDV’s decisions, as actors might be added or removed and the trajectories of existing actors and the SDV will differ from the original log. In this paper, we present UniSim, a neural sensor simulator that takes a single recorded log captured by a sensor-equipped vehicle and converts it into a realistic closed-loop multi-sensor simulation. UniSim builds neural feature grids to reconstruct both the static background and dynamic actors in the scene, and composites them together to simulate LiDAR and camera data at new viewpoints, with actors added or removed and at new placements. To better handle extrapolated views, we incorporate learnable priors for dynamic objects, and leverage a convolutional network to complete unseen regions. Our experiments show UniSim can simulate realistic sensor data with small domain gap on downstream tasks. With UniSim, we demonstrate, for the first time, closed-loop evaluation of an autonomy system on safety-critical scenarios as if it were in the real world.

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